Optimization of Voltages Combination for Gold-based Contrast Agents below K-edges in Dual-energy Micro-CT

Yuan Yuan, Yanbo Zhang, Hengyong Yu


Published in:Fully3D 2017 Proceedings


material decomposition, gold nanoparticles, contrast agents, scanning voltage, joint bilateral filtraion
Dual-energy micro- Computed Tomography provides high resolution for non-invasive images at low cost. It can determine the concentrations of constituent materials in a mixture. Taking advantage of K-edge, gold-based agents contribute to improve the contrast of some physiological tissues with low natural contrast. Because the K-edge of gold (80.7 kVp) is excessively high, the anatomical structures could not be identified clearly in in vivo small animal experiments. In this study, the voltage combination below K-edge is optimized to differentiate cortical bone, soft tissue and gold. To further improve the accuracy, the reconstructed dual-energy images are filtered using a joint bilateral filtration. Based on the quantitative analysis of material decomposition, the optimized voltage pair are 45kVp and 65kVp. Our results could provide practical guidance for the design of in vivo small animal experiments using gold nanoparticles as contrast agents. 
Yuan Yuan
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Yanbo Zhang
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Hengyong Yu
University of Massachusetts Lowell
  1. D. Cavanaugh, E. Johnson, R. E. Price, J. Kurie, E. L. Travis, and D. D. Cody, “In vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging in small-animal oncology models,” Mol. Imaging, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2004.
  2. D. P. Clark, K. Ghaghada, E. J. Moding, D. G. Kirsch, and C. T. Badea, “In vivo characterization of tumor vasculature using iodine and gold nanoparticles and dual energy micro-CT,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 58, no. 6, p. 1683, 2013.
  3. J. F. Hainfeld, D. N. Slatkin, T. M. Focella, and H. M. Smilowitz, “Gold nanoparticles: a new X-ray contrast agent,” Br. J. Radiol., vol. 79, no. 939, pp. 248–253, 2006.
  4. J. F. Dorsey et al., “Gold nanoparticles in radiation research: potential applications for imaging and radiosensitization.,” Transl. Cancer Res., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 280–291, 2013.
  5. E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 325–327, 2005.
  6. A. Manuscript, Focus on Micelles, vol. 9, no. 1. 2015.
  7. P. R. S. Mendonca, P. Lamb, and D. V. Sahani, “A flexible method for multi-material decomposition of dual-energy CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 99–116, 2014.
  8. W. Zhao et al., “Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT,” Phys. Med. Biol., p. 1332.
  9. C. Maaß, E. Meyer, and M. Kachelrieß, “Exact dual energy material decomposition from inconsistent rays (MDIR),” Med. Phys., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 691–700, Feb. 2011.
  10. T. Niu, X. Dong, M. Petrongolo, and L. Zhu, “Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT,” Med. Phys., vol. 41, no. 4, p. 41901, 2014.
  11. D. P. Clark and C. T. Badea, “Spectral diffusion: an algorithm for robust material decomposition of spectral CT data,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 59, no. 21, p. 6445, 2014.
  12. S. Mukundan et al., “A liposomal nanoscale contrast agent for preclinical CT in mice,” Am. J. Roentgenol., vol. 186, no. 2, pp. 300–307, 2006.
  13. Z. Li, S. Leng, L. Yu, Z. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “ Image-based material decomposition with a general volume constraint for photon-counting CT ,” 2015, vol. 9412, p. 94120T–94120T–8.
  14. C. T. Badea, S. M. Johnston, Y. Qi, K. Ghaghada, and G. A. Johnson, “Dual-energy micro-CT imaging for differentiation of iodine- and gold-based nanoparticles,” vol. 7961, p. 79611X, 2011.
  15. H. J. Vinegar and S. L. Wellington, “Tomographic imaging of three-phase flow experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 96–107, 1987.
  16. P. V. Granton, S. I. Pollmann, N. L. Ford, M. Drangova, and D. W. Holdsworth, “Implementation of dual- and triple-energy cone-beam micro-CT for postreconstruction material decomposition,” Med. Phys., vol. 35, no. 11, p. 5030, 2008.
  17. J. Nuyts, B. De Man, J. A. Fessler, W. Zbijewski, and F. J. Beekman, “Modelling the physics in the iterative reconstruction for transmission computed tomography.,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 58, no. 12, pp. R63-96, 2013.
  18. C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, “Bilateral Filtering for Gray and Color Images,” Int. Conf. Comput. Vis., pp. 839–846, 1998.
  19. D. Clark, G. a Johnson, and C. T. Badea, “Denoising of 4D Cardiac Micro-CT Data Using Median-Centric Bilateral Filtration.,” Proc. SPIE Med. Imaging, vol. 8314, pp. 1–12, 2012.
  20. https://bps-healthcare.siemens.com/cv_oem/radIn.asp