MARS imaging and reconstruction challenges

Niels J. A. de Ruiter, Philip H. Butler, Anthony P. H. Butler, Stephen T. Bell, Alexander I. Chernoglazov, Michael F. Walsh


Published in:Fully3D 2017 Proceedings


The MARS programme is developing spectral CT scanners to advance medicine. Our system is built upon the Medipix3RX ASIC developed by a CERN led collaboration. The Medipix3RX has 8 counters where some counters use charge summing technology to improve energy resolution. Our scanners include small bore scanners, pre-clinical systems used by our partners at the Mayo Clinic, Notre Dame University, and the University of Otago, and a large bore scanner (a human scale system in development). In this talk we demonstrate some of the applications, and publicly available datasets, that show how spectral CT can enhance pre-clinical and medical imaging. Our primary challenge for the future is to improve our reconstruction methods to generate artefact free, quantitative material volumetric datasets for clinical use.
Niels de Ruiter
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
Philip Butler
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
Anthony Butler
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
Stephen Bell
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
Alexander Chernoglazov
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
Michael Walsh
MARS Bioimaging Ltd, New Zealand
  1. S. M. Jorgensen, A. J. Vercnocke, D. S. Rundle, P. H. Butler, C. H. McCollough, and E. L. Ritman, “Evaluation of a photon counting Medipix3RX CZT spectral x-ray detector,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, Oct 2016.
  2. N. Welding. (2015) The transformation of cancer imaging: From shades of gray to living color. Website. University of Notre Dame. [Online]. Available:
  3. Medipix. Welcome to the medipix homepage! Website. CERN. [Online]. Available:
  4. R. K. Panta, M. F. Walsh, S. T. Bell, N. G. Anderson, A. P. Butler, and P. H. Butler, “Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral x-ray detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 697–706, March 2015.
  5. Advacam. (2017) Advacam imaging the unseen. Website. Advacam. Advacam Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland. [Online]. Available:
  6. REDLEN. (2017) About redlen. Website. Redlen Technologies. Redlen Technologies, 123 1763 Sean Heights, Saanichton, BC, V8M 0A5. [Online]. Available:
  7. DICOM Part 3: Information Object Definitions, National Electrical Manufacturers Association Std., 2014b. [Online]. Available:
  8. zSpace. (2017) The ultimate learning experience. Website. zSpace, Inc. 490 De Guigne Drive, Ste 200, Sunnyvale, CA 94085. [Online]. Available:
  9. R. Aras, Y. Shen, and A. Noor, “Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of using display techniques with a haptic device for manipulating 3d objects in virtual environments,” Advances in Engineering Software, vol. 76, pp. 43 – 47, 2014. [Online]. Available:
  10. V. B. H. Mandalika, A. Chernoglazov, M. Billinghurst, C. Bartneck, M. Hurrell, N. de Ruiter, A. Butler, and P. Butler, “A hybrid user interface improving radiological diagnosis,” In Preparation, 2017.
  11. R. Zainon, J. P. Ronaldson, T. Janmale, N. J. Scott, T. M. Buckenham, A. P. H. Butler, P. H. Butler, R. M. Doesburg, S. P. Gieseg, J. A. Roake, and N. G. Anderson, “Spectral ct of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology,” European Radiology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2581–2588, 2012. [Online]. Available:
  12. R. Aamir, A. Chernoglazov, C. J. Bateman, A. P. H. Butler, P. H. Butler, N. G. Anderson, S. T. Bell, R. K. Panta, J. L. Healy, J. L. Mohr, K. Rajendran, M. F. Walsh, N. J. A. de Ruiter, S. P. Gieseg, T. Woodfield, P. F. Renaud, L. Brooke, S. Abdul-Majid, M. Clyne, R. Glendenning, P. J. Bones, M. Billinghurst, C. Bartneck, H. Mandalika, R. Grasset, N. Schleich, N. Scott, S. J. Nik, A. Opie, T. Janmale, D. N. Tang, D. Kim, R. M. Doesburg, R. Zainon, J. P. Ronaldson, N. J. Cook, D. J. Smithies, and K. Hodge, “MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis,” Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 9, no. 02, p. P02005, 2014. [Online]. Available:
  13. K. Rajendran, C. Lobker, B. S. Schon, C. J. Bateman, R. A. Younis, N. J. A. de Ruiter, A. I. Chernoglazov, M. Ramyar, G. J. Hooper, A. P. H. Butler, T. B. F. Woodfield, and N. G. Anderson, “Quantitative imaging of excised osteoarthritic cartilage using spectral CT,” European Radiology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 384–392, Jan 2017.
  14. M. Moghiseh, R. Aamir, R. K. Panta, N. J. A. de Ruiter, A. I. Chernoglazov, J. L. Healy, A. P. H. Butler, and N. G. Anderson, “Discrimination of multiple high-Z materials by multi-energy spectral CT a phantom study,” JSM Biomed Imaging Data Pap, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1007, 2016.
  15. H. M. Hudson and R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 601–609, Dec 1994.
  16. C. O. Schirra, E. Roessl, T. Koehler, B. Brendel, A. Thran, and R. Proksa, “Maximum likelihood CT reconstruction from materialdecomposed sinograms using fisher information,” in 2011 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Oct 2011, pp. 4063–4065.
  17. R. A. Nasirudin, R. Tachibana, J. J. Nppi, K. Mei, F. K. Kopp, E. J. Rummeny, H. Yoshida, and P. B. Nol, “A comparison of material decomposition techniques for dual-energy CT colonography,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2015.
  18. K. Rajendran, M. F. Walsh, N. J. A. de Ruiter, A. I. Chernoglazov, R. K. Panta, A. P. H. Butler, P. H. Butler, S. T. Bell, N. G. Anderson, T. B. F. Woodfield, S. J. Tredinnick, J. L. Healy, C. J. Bateman, R. Aamir, R. M. N. Doesburg, P. F. Renaud, S. P. Gieseg, D. J. Smithies, J. L. Mohr, V. B. H. Mandalika, A. M. T. Opie, N. J. Cook, J. P. Ronaldson, S. J. Nik, A. Atharifard, M. Clyne, P. J. Bones, C. Bartneck, R. Grasset, N. Schleich, and M. Billinghurst, “Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in spectral CT using Medipix3RX,” Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 9, no. 03, p. P03015, 2014. [Online]. Available: